Geography (BA and BSc Programs)

Catherine Nolin, Professor and Chair
Gail Fondahl, Professor
Greg Halseth, Professor and Canada Research Chair, Rural and Small Town Studies
Neil Hanlon, Professor
Brian Menounos, Professor and Canada Research Chair, Glacier Change
Ellen Petticrew, Professor and FRBC Chair in Landscape Ecology
Roger Wheate, Professor/GIS Coordinator
Zoë Meletis, Associate Professor
Joseph Shea, Associate Professor
Faran Ali, Assistant Professor
Sam Albers, Adjunct Professor
Matthew Beedle, Adjunct Professor
Sarah de Leeuw, Adjunct Professor
Bill Floyd, Adjunct Professor
Sean Markey, Adjunct Professor
Marleen Morris, Adjunct Professor
Tristan Pearce, Adjunct Professor
John Rex, Adjunct Professor
Grahame Russell, Adjunct Professor
Ping Bai, Senior Lab Instructor (GIS)
Christine Jackson, Senior Lab Instructor
Matt McLean, Senior Lab Instructor (GIS)

Website: http://www.unbc.ca/geography
 
Geography is an interdisciplinary bridge between the human and physical sciences, studying human­–environment interactions. The Geography program offers both a Bachelor of Science and a Bachelor of Arts. The BSc in physical geography examines the natural environment and the interaction of climate, soils, vegetation and landforms, while the BA in human geography focuses on cultural, social, economic and rural environments. Degrees emphasize the geography of the North and contemporary geographic technologies.


Geography Program (BA)

Major in Geography

This degree provides students with comprehensive training in the study of human geography, emphasizing the cultural, social, economic, and political connections between people and their environments. We offer courses that give students the conceptual and methodological means to make sense of the places and spaces they occupy and to understand how these relate to the rest of the world. Particular emphasis is on issues of community development, social justice, environmental equity, and population health in northern environments as a starting point for understanding the dynamics of place-making in a global context.
The minimum requirement for the completion of a Bachelor of Arts with a major in Geography is 120 credit hours.

Program Requirements

Lower Division Requirement

100 Level
GEOG 101-3 Planet Earth
GEOG 102-3 Earth from Above
200 Level
GEOG 200-3 British Columbia: People and Places
GEOG 203-3 Canada: Places, Cultures and Identities
GEOG 204-3 Introduction to GIS
GEOG 210-3 Introduction to Earth Science
STAT 240-3 Basic Statistics
     or ECON 205-3 Statistics for Business and the Social Sciences
Four of the following:
GEOG 202-3 Resources, Economics and Sustainability
GEOG 205-3 Cartography and Geomatics
GEOG 206-3 Social Geography
GEOG 209-3 Migration and Development
GEOG 211-3 Natural Hazards: Human and Environmental Dimensions
GEOG 220-3 World Regions: Latin America and the Caribbean
GEOG 222-3 World Regions: Russia
GEOG 298-3 Special Topics
Upper Division Requirement

300 Level
 
ENPL 319-3 Social Research Methods
    or GEOG 324-3 Community-Based Research
Five of the following:
GEOG 300-3 Intermediate GIS
GEOG 301-3 Cultural Geography
GEOG 305-3 Political Ecology: Environmental Knowledge and Decision-Making
GEOG 306-3 Critical Development Geographies
GEOG 307-3 Changing Arctic: Human and Environmental Systems
GEOG 308-3 Health Geography
Geography Field School 
400 Level
COMM 332-3 Business and Professional Ethics
     or ENVS 414-3 Environmental and Professional Ethics
Five of the following:
GEOG 357-3 Introduction to Remote Sensing
GEOG 401-3 Tenure, Conflict, and Resource Geography
GEOG 403-3 First Nations and Indigenous Geographies
GEOG 413-3 Advanced GIS
GEOG 416-3 Mountains
GEOG 420-3 Environmental Justice
GEOG 424-3 Northern Communities
GEOG 426-3 Geographies of Culture, Rights and Power
GEOG 498-(1-3) Special Topics
GEOG 499-(3-6) Independent Studies
Elective and Academic Breadth Requirement

Elective credit hours as necessary to ensure completion of a minimum of 120 credit hours, of which 24 credit hours in any subject must be at the 300 or 400 level, including any additional credit hours necessary to meet the Academic Breadth requirement of the University (see Academic Regulation 15).


Joint Major in Geography and Political Science

The minimum requirement for the completion of a Bachelor of Arts with a Joint Major in Geography and Political Science is 120 credit hours.


Program Requirements

Lower Division Requirement
GEOG 101-3    Planet Earth
        or GEOG 102-3 Earth from Above
POLS 100-3 Contemporary Political Issues
POLS 200-3 Canadian Government and Politics
POLS 202-3 Canada in Comparative Perspective
POLS 230-3 International Relations
POLS 270-3 Political Philosophy: Antiquity to Early Modernity
Four of the following:
GEOG 200-3    British Columbia: People and Places
GEOG 202-3 Resources, Economies, and Sustainability
GEOG 203-3 Canada: Places, Cultures and Identities
GEOG 204-3 Introduction to GIS
GEOG 206-3 Social Geography
GEOG 209-3 Migration and Development
GEOG 211-3 Natural Hazards: Human and Environmental Dimensions
GEOG 220-3 World Regions: Latin America and the Caribbean
GEOG 222-3 World Regions: Russia
GEOG 298-3 Special Topics
Upper Division Requirement
POLS 303-3    Democracy and Democratization
POLS 320-3 Canadian Politics and Policy
POLS 370-3 Political Philosophy: Early Modernity to Post-Modernity
Four of the following:
GEOG 301-3    Cultural Geography
GEOG 305-3 Political Ecology: Environmental Knowledge and Decision-Making
GEOG 306-3 Critical Development Geographies
GEOG 307-3 Changing Arctic: Human and Environmental Systems
GEOG 308-3 Health Geography
GEOG 324-3 Community-Based Research
GEOG 333-3 Geography Field School
Three of the following:
GEOG 401-3    Tenure, Conflict, and Resource Geography
GEOG 403-3 First Nations and Indigenous Geographies
GEOG 416-3 Mountains
GEOG 420-3 Environmental Justice
GEOG 424-3 Northern Communities
GEOG 426-3 Geographies of Culture, Rights and Power
Three additional credit hours of POLS courses at the 300 level.
Nine additional credit hours of POLS courses at the 400 level.

Elective and Academic Breadth
Electives at any level in any subject sufficient to ensure completion of a minimum of 120 credit hours including any additional credit hours necessary to meet the Academic Breadth requirement of the University (see Academic Regulation 15).

Major in Public Administration and Community Development

The Public Administration and Community Development major gives students the skills required to function within a range of groups, organizations, and offices. Graduates are able to interact with appropriate professionals, receive their input and reports, and collate a wide range of information and material in service of their group/organization/office. Skills in analysis and synthesis are complemented by an ability to work cooperatively and effectively, and an ability to communicate clearly through written, oral, and graphic media.

The Public Administration and Community Development major requires completion of 120 credit hours, 48 of which must be at the upper division. At the lower division, students must take the seven required courses and a minimum of one course from each of the seven categories. At the upper division, students must take the four required courses and a minimum of one course from each of the seven categories. To complete the 120 credit hours, students must take 45 credit hours of electives, of which 15 credit hours must be at the upper division.

Program Requirements

Lower-Division Requirements

Required:
Introduction to Canadian Business
ECON 100-3 Microeconomics
ECON 101-3 Macroeconomics
ENPL 104-3 Introduction to Planning
FNST 100-3 The Aboriginal Peoples of Canada
GEOG 101-3 Planet Earth
POLS 100-3 Contemporary Political Issues
Select ONE course from each category below:
 
Community:
FNST 217-3 Contemporary Challenges Facing Aboriginal Communities
GEOG 206-3 Social Geography
Migration and Development
Public Administration:
ECON 210-3 Introduction to Health Economics and Policy
ENVS 230-3 Introduction to Environmental Policy
NREM 209-3 The Practice of Conservation
POLS 255-3 Introduction to Law in Canada
SOCW 201-3 Introduction to Social Welfare
Governance:
ENVS 101-3 Introduction to Environmental Citizenship
Public Law in Canada
POLS 200-3 Canadian Government and Politics
POLS 257-3 Public Law in Canada
 First Nations:
FNST 200-3 Perspectives in First Nations Studies
FNST 249-3 Aboriginal Resource Planning
    or ENPL 208-3 First Nations Community and Environmental Planning
HIST 215-3 Global History of Indigenous People
Methods:
ECON 205-3    Statistics for Business and the Social Sciences
ENPL 204-3    Principles and Practices of Planning
ENPL 206-3    Planning Analysis and Techniques
FNST 200-3    Perspectives in First Nations Studies
FNST 203-3    Introduction to Traditional Environmental Knowledge
GEOG 204-3    Introduction to GIS
GEOG 205-3     Cartography and Geomatics
 Economics:
COMM 230-3 Organizational Behaviour
GEOG 202-3 Resources, Economies and Sustainability
ORTM 200-3 Sustainable Outdoor Recreation and Tourism
 General:
ANTH 102-3 Anthropology: A World of Discovery
ARTS 102-3 Research Writing
COMM 240-3 Introduction to Marketing
ECON 220-3 Global Economic Shifts
POLS 290-3 Research and Writing for Political Science
ORTM 100-3 Foundations of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism
Upper-Division Requirements
 
ENPL 313-3 Rural Community Economic Development
GEOG 424-3 Northern Communities
POLS 332-3 Community Development
POLS 403-3 Social and Health Policy and Administration
Select ONE course from each category below:

Community:
COMM 302-3 Entrepreneurship
ENPL 301-3 Sustainable Communities: Structure and Sociology
GEOG 301-3 Cultural Geography
ORTM 407-3 Recreation, Tourism, and Communities
POLS 434-3 Resource Communities in Transition
SOCW 437-3 Social Work with Groups and Communities
SOCW 456-3 Indigenous Family Caring Systems
SOCW 457-3 Individual and Community Wellness for Indigenous Peoples
 Public Administration:
COMM 330-3 Human Resources Management
ENPL 304-3 Mediation, Negotiation, Public Participation
ENPL 401-3 Environmental Law
POLS 302-3 How Government Works
Society, Policy, and Administration of Natural Resources
Local Services and Public Policy
Local Government Finance
SOCW 455-3 Indigenous Governance and Social Policy
 Governance:
ANTH 410-3 Theory of Nation and State
ENVS 326-3 Natural Resources, Environmental Issues and Public Engagement
GEOG 305-3 Political Ecology: Environmental Knowledge and Decision-Making
POLS 316-3 Municipal Government and Politics
POLS 320-3 Canadian Politics and Policy
POLS 333-3 Politics and Government of BC
Law and Municipal Government
 First Nations:
ANTH 404-3 Comparative Study of Indigenous Peoples of the World
ENPL 409-3 Advanced First Nations Community and Environment Planning
FNST 304-3 Indigenous Environmental Philosophy
GEOG 403-3 First Nations and Indigenous Geographies
GEOG 426-3 Geographies of Culture, Rights and Power
HIST 390-3 Aboriginal People of Canada
NREM 303-3 Aboriginal Perspectives on Land and Resource Management
ORTM 306-3 Indigenous Tourism and Recreation
POLS 415-3 Comparative Northern Development
Methods:
ANTH 421-(3-6) Ethnographic Field Methods
ENPL 305-3 Environmental Impact Assessment
ENPL 319-3 Social Research Methods
FNST 300-3 Research Methods in First Nations Studies
GEOG 324-3 Community-Based Research
 Economics:
COMM 303-3 Introduction to International Business
ECON 305-3 Environmental Economics and Environmental Policy
ECON 307-3 Northern BC in the Global Economy
ECON 331-3 Forestry Economics
ENVS 431-3 Environmental and Sustainability Policies
GEOG 401-3 Tenure, Conflict and Resource Geography
General:
COMM 332-3 Business and Professional Ethics
COMM 340-3 Marketing Communications
COMM 342-3 Services Marketing
ENVS 414-3 Environmental and Professional Ethics
FNST 451-3 Traditional Use Studies
FNST 498-3 Special Topics in First Nations Studies
GEOG 200-3 British Columbia: People and Places
GEOG 308-3 Health Geography
GEOG 420-3 Environmental Justice
HIST 360-3 An Introduction to Environmental History
POLS 327-3 Leadership and Ethics in Local Government
 Areas of Specialization

It is possible for students to organize their course choices (areas and electives) to achieve an Area of Specialization of coursework. For the PACD major, completion of a specialization requires eight courses (24 credit hours) from one of the following:
Area of Specialization in Local Public Administration

*Students choosing this Area of Specialization should be aware that UNBC also offers a Public Administration Certificate through the Department of Political Science, as well as a First Nations Public Administration Certificate through the Department of First Nations Studies.

Lower-Division course choices
COMM 100-3 Introduction to Canadian Business
COMM 230-3 Organizational Behaviour
POLS 255-3 Introduction to Law in Canada
POLS 290-3 Research and Writing for Political Science
Upper-Division course choices
POLS 316-3 Municipal Government and Politics
POLS 320-3 Canadian Politics and Policy
Leadership and Ethics in Local Government
POLS 333-3 Politics and Government of BC
Law and Municipal Government
Local Services and Public Policy
Local Government Finance
POLS 403-3 Social and Health Policy and Administration
Area of Specialization in Aboriginal Community Development

Lower-Division course choices
FNST 200-3 Perspectives in First Nations Studies
FNST 203-3 Introduction to Traditional Environmental Knowledge
FNST 217-3 Contemporary Challenges Facing Aboriginal Communities
FNST 249-3 Aboriginal Resource Planning
or  ENPL 208-3 First Nations Community and Environmental Planning
Upper-Division course choices
ANTH 404-3 Comparative Study of Indigenous Peoples of the World
COMM 302-3 Entrepreneurship
ENPL 409-3 Advanced First Nations Community and Environment Planning
FNST 300-3 Research Methods in First Nations Studies
FNST 304-3 Indigenous Environmental Philosophy
FNST 416-3 International Perspective
FNST 451-3 Traditional Use Studies
FNST 498-3 Special Topics in First Nations Studies
GEOG 403-3 First Nations and Indigenous Geographies
HIST 390-3 Aboriginal People in Canada
NREM 303-3 Aboriginal Perspectives on Land and Resource Management
ORTM 306-3 Indigenous Tourism and Recreation
SOCW 455-3 Indigenous Governance and Social Policy
SOCW 457-3 Individual and Community Wellness for Indigenous Peoples
Area of Specialization in Planning

*It should be noted that the Area of Specialization in Planning does not lead to an accredited planning degree. The School of Environmental Planning offers a professional accredited Canadian Institute of Planner degree. Refer to the calendar for further information.

Required courses
ENPL 104-3 Introduction to Planning
ENPL 204-3 Principles and Practices of Planning
ENPL 301-3 Sustainable Communities: Structure and Sociology
ENPL 304-3 Mediation, Negotiation, Public Participation
 Four of the following:
ENPL 206-3 Planning Analysis and Techniques
ENPL 208-3 First Nations Community and Environmental Planning
ENPL 305-3 Environmental Impact Assessment
ENPL 313-3 Rural Community Economic Development
ENPL 319-3 Social Research Methods
ENPL 401-3 Environmental Law
ENPL 409-3 Advanced First Nations Community and Environment Planning
ENVS 326-3 Natural Resources, Environmental Issues and Public Engagement
Elective and Academic Breadth Requirement

45 elective credit hours in any subject as necessary to ensure completion of a minimum of 120 credit hours (at least 15 of these elective credit hours must be at the 300 or 400 level) including any additional credit hours necessary to meet the Academic Breadth requirement of the University (see Academic Regulation 15).


Joint Major in Anthropology and Geography (BA)

See Calendar entry under Anthropology.
 

Geography Program (BSc)

Major in Geography


This degree focuses on geography as an earth science, with introductions to biology, chemistry, mathematics and physics, followed by upper-level courses in climatology, hydrology, geomorphology, soils and weathering, and geomatics. This combination enables the understanding of the interactions between the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere, aided by the use of statistical techniques, mapping, remote sensing and geographic information systems. Courses develop applied field and technical skills for associated career paths.

Undergraduate students are required to take a minimum of 13 Geography courses (37 credit hours). Of these courses, a minimum of six must be upper division. Students are required to take a minimum of 24 credit hours of elective science courses, of which 15 credit hours must be upper division. Additional electives, as necessary, are required to ensure the completion of a minimum of 120 credit hours.

The minimum requirement for completion of a Bachelor of Science with a major in Geography is 120 credit hours.

Program Requirements

Lower Division Requirement

100 Level
    and BIOL 124-1
Introductory Biology II
Introductory Biology II Laboratory
CHEM 100-3 General Chemistry I
CHEM 101-3 General Chemistry II
CHEM 120-1 General Chemistry Lab I
CHEM 121-1 General Chemistry Lab II
GEOG 101-3 Planet Earth
GEOG 102-3 Earth from Above
MATH 100-3 Calculus I
       or MATH 152-3 Calculus for Non-majors
PHYS 100-4 Introduction to Physics I
     or PHYS 110-4
Introductory Physics I: Mechanics 
200 Level
ENSC 201-3 Weather and Climate
FSTY 205-3 Introduction to Soil Science
GEOG 200-3 British Columbia: People and Places
GEOG 204-3 Introduction to GIS
     or GEOG 205-3 Cartography and Geomatics
GEOG 210-3 Introduction to Earth Science
GEOG 211-3 Natural Hazards: Human and Environmental Dimensions
GEOG 212-1 Earth Science Careers
GEOG 250-3 Introduction to Geospatial Analysis
       or ENSC 250-2 Introduction to Environmental Data Analysis
Basic Statistics
Upper Division Requirement

300 Level
GEOG 300-3 Intermediate GIS
GEOG 310-3 Hydrology
GEOG 311-3 Drainage Basin Geomorphology
GEOG 315-3 Earth's Critical Zone
GEOG 357-3 Introduction to Remote Sensing
Two of the following:
ENSC 307-3 Introduction to Geochemistry
ENSC 312-3 Biometeorology
ENSC 325-3 Soil Physical Processes and the Environment
FSTY 425-3 Soil Formation and Classification
     or FSTY 415-3
Forest Soils
     or FSTY 425-3
Soil Formation and Classification
Geography Field School
400 Level

Three of the following:
GEOG 405-3 Fluvial Geomorphology
GEOG 411-3 Quaternary and Surficial Geology
GEOG 413-3 Advanced GIS
GEOG 416-3 Mountains
GEOG 430-(3-6) Undergraduate Thesis
GEOG 450-3 Advanced Geospatial Analysis
GEOG 457-3 Advanced Remote Sensing
GEOG 498-(1-3) Special Topics
GEOG 499-(3-6) Independent Studies

Elective Requirement

Science Electives 
Nine credit hours of Science electives at any level and 15 credit hours of Science electives at the 300 or 400 level. 

Elective Science Courses

All courses allowed in: Astronomy (ASTR), Biology (BIOL), Chemistry (CHEM), Civil Engineering (CIVE), Computer Science (CPSC), Engineering (ENGR), Environmental Science (ENSC), Environmental Engineering (ENVE), Forestry (FSTY), Health and Human Sciences (HHSC), Mathematics (MATH), Natural Resources and Ecosystem Management (NREM), Physics (PHYS), and Statistics (STAT).

Anthropology:
ANTH 100-3 Archaeological and Biological Approaches
ANTH 200-3 Biological Anthropology
ANTH 205-3 Introduction to Archaeology
ANTH 220-3 Introduction to Primatology
ANTH 301-3 Archaeological Lab Methods
ANTH 311-3
Anthropology of Food, Drink & Health 
Human Adaptability and Environmental Stress
Biology of Circumpolar Peoples 
Races, Racism and Human Biology 
Geography:

The following courses are allowed:
GEOG 204-3 Introduction to GIS
GEOG 205-3 Cartography and Geomatics
GEOG 250-3 Introduction to Spatial Analysis
GEOG 333-3 Geography Field School
GEOG 405-3 Fluvial Geomorphology
GEOG 411-3 Quaternary Surficial Geology
GEOG 413-3 Advanced GIS
GEOG 416-3 Mountains
GEOG 450-3 Advanced Geospatial Analysis
Advanced Remote Sensing 
Elective and Academic Breadth

Electives at any level in any subject sufficient to ensure completion of a minimum of 120 credit hour including any additional credits necessary to meet the Academic Breadth requirement of the University (see Academic Regulation 15).


BSc Honours – Physical Geography

A BSc Honours in Physical Geography provides students with the opportunity to complete independent research. It is encouraged for students who are considering a postgraduate degree. In addition to the BSc Physical Geography degree requirements, Honours students must complete an undergraduate thesis chosen from GEOG 430-6 (Undergraduate Thesis), or NRES 430-6 (Undergraduate Thesis). The undergraduate thesis must be conducted under the supervision of a faculty member.

The minimum requirement for a BSc Honours degree in Geography is 126 credit hours. Students are responsible to find their own undergraduate thesis research supervisor. However, faculty members are under no obligation to supervise Honours students. To be admitted to the Honours degree program, students must have completed 60 credit hours and obtained a minimum Cumulative GPA of 3.33. Attaining the minimum requirement does not guarantee admission into the Honours program, which is at the discretion of the Geography Program (contact the Program Chair for details). Maintenance of a Cumulative GPA of 3.33 is required to remain in the Honours program.


Areas of Specialization

In order to increase the breadth and utility of their degree, and to demonstrate an interest in a particular sub-discipline, students are encouraged to complete an Area of Specialization (normally 12 credit hours) during their degree, which can be chosen from the following list:
 
  1. Air
  2. Water
  3. Earth
  4. Soil Science
  5. Ecogeography
  6. Geospatial Science
Courses used to fulfill the requirements for the BSc Geography major (excluding the science electives) cannot be used to fulfill the requirement of the selected Area of Specialization. Students who are considering an Area of Specialization are strongly encouraged to talk to an advisor early in their second year in order to ensure that the pre-requisites are met for upper-division courses.

Air

A specialization in Air provides a deeper understanding of atmospheric processes near Earth's surface that govern the development of weather systems, regulate climate, and are implicit in environmental challenges such as climate change and air pollution.

Choose four of the following:
ENSC 312-3 Biometeorology
ENSC 408-3 Storms
ENSC 412-3 Air Pollution
ENSC 425-3 Climate Change and Global Warming
ENSC 450-3 Environmental and Geophysical Data Analysis
ENSC 454-3 Snow and Ice

Water

Water and water resources represent an important component of physical geography. The Water specialization provides students with courses that develop key competencies in water science.

Choose four of the following:
BIOL 302-3 Limnology
ENGR 451-3 Groundwater Hydrology
ENSC 202-3 Aquatic Systems
ENSC 450-3 Environmental and Geophysical Data Analysis
ENSC 454-3 Snow and Ice
GEOG 405-3 Fluvial Geomorphology

Earth

The Earth specialization provides foundational knowledge about the Earth’s materials, processes and resources, and examines key challenges such as energy and resource availability, geological hazards, and environmental sustainability.

Choose four of the following:
ENSC 307-3 Introduction to Geochemistry
ENSC 325-3 Soil Physical Processes and the Environment
GEOG 333-3 Geography Field School
GEOG 405-3 Fluvial Geomorphology
GEOG 411-3 Quaternary and Surficial Geology
GEOG 416-3 Mountains

Soil Science

The Soil Science specialization focuses on the physical, chemical and biological processes which regulate the formation, maintenance, and restoration of the Earth’s range of soils.

Choose four of the following:
ENGR 451-3 Groundwater Hydrology
ENSC 325-3 Soil Physical Processes and the Environment
ENSC 404-3 Waste Management
ENSC 435-3 Soil Biological Processes and the Environment
ENSC 452-3 Reclamation and Remediation of Disturbed Environments
FSTY 415-3 Forest Soils
FSTY 425-3 Soil Formation and Classification
GEOG 411-3 Quaternary and Surficial Geology

Ecogeography

The Ecogeography specialization combines elements of physical geography with a selection of theory- and methods-based ecology courses.
BIOL 201-3 Ecology
BIOL 325-3 Ecological Analysis
Choose two of the following:
     BIOL 333-3 Field School
     BIOL 404-3 Plant Ecology
     BIOL 410-3 Population and Community Ecology
     BIOL 411-3 Conservation Biology

Geospatial Science

A specialization in Geospatial Science provides students with theoretical and practical skills necessary to analyze and visualize large geospatial datasets, and to solve geophysical problems with code-based solutions.

Choose four of the following:
ENPL 303-3 Spatial Planning with Geographical Information Systems (GIS)
ENSC 450-3 Environmental and Geophysical Data Analysis
GEOG 250-3 Introduction to Geospatial Analysis*
GEOG 413-3 Advanced GIS
GEOG 450-3 Advanced Geospatial Analysis
GEOG 457-3 Advanced Remote Sensing
*Students who choose GEOG 250-3 to meet the requirements of this specialization must take ENSC 250-2 to meet the requirements for the BSc Major.

Minor in Earth Sciences

The Earth Sciences minor provides depth in areas of earth science that support natural resource management. Students are required to complete 18 credit hours (12 of which must be at the 300- or 400-level) chosen from the following lists, with at least one course from each of the first three groups. Students may use a maximum of two upper-division courses (6 credit hours) used to fulfill the requirements for a major or another minor. Students must ensure that all prerequisites are fulfilled prior to registering in any course.

NOTE: Some upper-division courses may be taught in alternate years; students should consider this when planning their course sequences.

Hydrology
ENGR 451-3 Groundwater Hydrology
ENSC 202-3 Introduction to Aquatic Systems
ENSC 454-3 Snow and Ice
GEOG 310-3 Hydrology

Geomorphology
GEOG 311-3 Drainage Basin Geomorphology
GEOG 405-3 Fluvial Geomorphology
GEOG 411-3 Quaternary and Surficial Geology
GEOG 416-3 Mountains

Soil Science
ENSC 325-3 Soil Physical Processes and the Environment
ENSC 435-3 Soil Biological Processes and the Environment
FSTY 415-3 Forest Soil Management
FSTY 425-3 Soil Formation and Classification

Other
ENSC 307-3 Introduction to Geochemistry
ENSC 425-3 Climate Change and Global Warming
GEOG 315-3 Earth’s Critical Zone
GEOG 357-3 Introduction to Remote Sensing
GEOG 413-3 Advanced GIS
GEOG 457-3 Advanced Remote Sensing

Minor in Geomorphology

A minor in Geomorphology is appropriate for students who wish to obtain a level of competence in the history of Earth's landscapes, surface processes and environmental change. The minor consists of key courses which, when taken together, provide a degree of proficiency in a field that is actively sought after by environmental consulting firms and government agencies.

A maximum of two courses (six credit hours) used to fulfill program requirements for a major or another minor may also be used to fulfill requirements for a minor in Geomorphology.

The minimum requirement for the completion of the minor in Geomorphology is 18 credit hours.


Requirements

GEOG 210-3 Geomorphology
GEOG 311-3 Drainage Basin Geomorphology
Four of the following:
FSTY 205-3 Introduction to Soil Science
     or FSTY 425-3 Soil Formation and Classification
GEOG 300-3 Intermediate GIS
     or GEOG 413-3 Advanced GIS
     or GEOG 357-3 Introduction to Remote Sensing
GEOG 310-3 Hydrology
GEOG 315-3 Earth’s Critical Zone
GEOG 405-3 Fluvial Geomorphology
GEOG 411-3 Quaternary and Surficial Geology
Minor in GIS (Geographic Information Systems)

The aim of the minor in GIS (Geographic Information Systems) is to provide a high level of competence in GIS and Computer Science technologies. Students with a minor in GIS gain experience in geographic data processing and analysis and are well-positioned for GIS-related careers.

Four required Geography courses and one Computer Science course form the core of the minor. CPSC 110-3 (Introduction to Computer Systems and Programming) and CPSC 344-3 (Data Communications and Networking) are aimed at those not majoring in Computer Science.

A maximum of two courses (6 credit hours) at or above the 200 level used to fulfill program requirements for a major or another minor may also be used to fulfill requirements for a minor in GIS.

The minimum requirement for the completion of the minor in GIS is 21 credit hours, of which at least 12 credit hours must be upper-division credits. Students must ensure that all prerequisites are fulfilled prior to taking courses at the 300 and 400 levels.


Requirements

CPSC 100-4 Computer Programming I
     or CPSC 110-3 Introduction to Computer Systems and Programming
GEOG 204-3 Introduction to GIS
GEOG 205-3 Cartography and Geomatics
GEOG 300-3 Intermediate GIS
GEOG 357-3 Introduction to Remote Sensing
Two courses from the following list:
CPSC 324-3 Introduction to Database Systems
CPSC 344-3 Data Communications and Networking
    or COMM 353-3 Business Data Communications and Networking
    or CPSC 444-3 Computer Networks
Spatial Planning with Geographical Information Systems (GIS)
Advanced GIS
GEOG 450-3 Advanced Geospatial Analysis
Advanced Remote Sensing


Minor in Physical Geography

A minor in Physical Geography is appropriate for students who seek a broad-based exposure to earth and environmental sciences. Prospective teachers, human geographers, and government agency and environmental consulting employees find the study of Earth's processes and the natural environment beneficial to their future careers. The minor consists of a group of courses which, when taken together, provide a degree of proficiency in Physical Geography.

A maximum of two courses (6 credit hours) used to fulfill program requirements for a major or another minor may also be used to fulfill requirements for a minor in Physical Geography.

The minimum requirement for the completion of the minor in Physical Geography is 18 credit hours.


Requirements

ENSC 201-3 Weather and Climate
FSTY 205-3 Introduction to Soil Science
GEOG 210-3 Introduction to Earth Science
Three of the following:
ENSC 312-3 Biometeorology
     or ENSC 408-3 Storms
GEOG 300-3 Intermediate GIS
   or GEOG 413-3 Advanced GIS
   or GEOG 357-3 Introduction to Remote Sensing
GEOG 310-3 Hydrology
     or GEOG 405-3  Fluvial Geomorphology
GEOG 311-3 Drainage Basin Geomorphology
GEOG 315-3 Earth’s Critical Zone
GEOG 411-3 Quaternary and Surficial Geology

Minor in Human Geography

The aim of the minor is to show a level of competence in a theme, field or program direction that a students feel would be beneficial to their career and which would be ancillary to the major. By designating this group of courses as a minor the students are able to demonstrate a level of proficiency in that field.

The minor in Human Geography is designed to provide students with the following:
 
  1. an introduction to the basics of human geography;
  2. a well-rounded introduction to several of the key sub-fields of human geography; and
  3. the chance to explore at least one facet of human geography of special interest to the student at the 400 level.
A maximum of two courses (6 credit hours) at or above the 200 level used to fulfill program requirements for a major or another minor may also be used to fulfill requirements for a minor in Human Geography.

The minimum requirement for completion of a minor in Human Geography is 18 credit hours, including 12 upper division credit hours.


Requirements

Two of the following:
GEOG 101-3 Planet Earth
GEOG 102-3 Earth from Above
GEOG 200-3 British Columbia: People and Places
GEOG 202-3 Resources, Economies and Sustainability
GEOG 203-3 Canada: Places, Cultures and Identities
GEOG 204-3 Introduction to GIS
GEOG 206-3 Social Geography
GEOG 209-3 Migration and Development
GEOG 211-3 Natural Hazards: Human and Environmental Dimensions
GEOG 220-3 World Regions: Latin America and the Caribbean
GEOG 222-3            World Regions: Russia
GEOG 298-3    Special Topics
Three of the following:
GEOG 301-3 Cultural Geography
GEOG 305-3 Political Ecology: Environmental Knowledge and Decision-Making
GEOG 306-3 Critical Development Geographies
GEOG 307-3 Changing Arctic: Human and Environmental Systems
GEOG 308-3 Health Geography
GEOG 324-3 Community-Based Research
GEOG 333-3 Geography Field School
One of the following:
GEOG 401-3 Tenure, Conflict, and Resource Geography
GEOG 403-3 First Nations and Indigenous Geographies
GEOG 416-3 Mountains
GEOG 420-3 Environmental Justice
GEOG 424-3 Northern Communities
GEOG 426-3 Geographies of Culture, Rights and Power

Minor in Global Environmental Change

See Calendar entry under Environmental Studies.
Updated: June 11, 2021